Homework #10 Solution




1    Introduction


In this homework, you will see two simple implementations of a sequence library,  and later implement the Barnes-Hut  approximation algorithm  for the n-body problem.



1.1     Getting The Homework Assignment


The starter files for the homework assignment have been distributed through  our git repos- itory as usual.



1.2     Submitting The Homework Assignment


Submissions will be handled  through  Autolab,  at




Important: for this assignment,  we are testing a new and improved submission system. To  submit  your  solutions,  run  make from the  hw/10 directory.   Now, however,  instead  of download/uploading a .tar file yourself, the script will automatically upload the hw10.tar to the Autolab servers.  If this new system should fail, then follow the instructions  in the file IN CASE OF EMERGENCY.

The Autolab handin script does some basic checks on your submission:  making sure that

the file names are correct; making sure that  no files are missing; making sure that  your PDF is valid; making sure that  your code compiles cleanly.  Note that  the handin  script  is not  a grading  script—a  timely submission that  passes the  handin  script  will be graded,  but  will not necessarily receive full credit.  You can view the results of the handin  script by clicking the  number  (usually  either  0.0 or 1.0) corresponding  to the  “check” section of your latest handin on the “Handin History” page. If this number is 0.0, your submission failed the check script; if it is 1.0, it passed.

You should have a file hw10.pdf containing your written solutions.  Your barnes-hut.sml, shrubseq.sml, sizeseq.sml, and tester.sml files must contain all the code that  you want to have graded  for this  assignment,  and must  compile cleanly.  If you have a function  that


happens to be named the same as one of the required functions but does not have the required type, it will not be graded.



1.3     Due Date




1.4     Methodology


You must  use the five step methodology  discussed in class for writing functions,  for every

function you write in this assignment.  Recall the five step methodology:


  1. In the first line of comments, write the name and type of the function.


  1. In the second line of comments, specify via a REQUIRES clause any assumptions about the arguments passed to the function.


  1. In the third line of comments, specify via an ENSURES clause what  the function com- putes (what  it returns).


  1. Implement the function.


  1. Provide testcases, generally in the format


val <return value> = <function> <argument value>



For example, for the factorial function presented  in lecture:


(* fact : int -> int

* REQUIRES: n >= 0

* ENSURES: fact(n) ==> n!



fun fact (0 : int) : int = 1

| fact (n : int) : int = n * fact(n-1) (* Tests: *)

val 1 = fact 0

val 720 = fact 6


2    Tree Sequences


In lecture  we covered an abstract data  structure called Sequences, which you made use of in the  last  assignment  (and  will continue  to  use for the  rest  of the  course).   So far,  we have avoided discussing implementations of a Sequence library;  thanks  to representational independence1,  the implementation details  are not important for most of the code you will write in this class. The next few problems will give you a brief introduction to implementing sequences using a familiar data  structure: binary trees!


We provide the following (shortened) signature  in the file tseq.sig:


signature TSEQ =











type ’a seq exception Range

val length : ’a seq -> int

val nth : int -> ’a seq -> ’a

val tabulate : (int -> ’a) -> int -> ’a seq



These are  the only functions on  sequences you  will  use  for  this part of  the assignment.  You should not  use the  Seq library  functions,  nor implement any functions outside this signature (but  keep them in mind for the second part of the assignment, Barnes- Hut!)



2.1     Sequential Shrubberies


We can implement the above signature  using a variety  of underlying  data  structures; with correct code, the only difference for a user should be the run-time  of our functions.  In the file shrubseq.sml we have provided the beginnings of a sequence implementation using the following datatype:


datatype ’a sseq = Empty

| Leaf of ’a

| Node of ’a sseq * ’a sseq type ’a seq = ’a sseq


For a type t, a value of type t seq is a binary tree with data of type t stored at the leaves. Additionally,  we have the  following balance  invariant :  For  any  Node(L,R) the  number  of leaves in L and in R differ by at most 1. Your code must ensure that  this invariant is always maintained. Note that since we do not support  an insert or delete operation on sequences, it is enough to guarantee  that  our trees are balanced when we first create them.


1 Recall that representational independence  is the idea that we can use multiple  implementations of a data structure to represent the same signature, in this case ordered  lists of elements  (sequences).


Task 2.1  (2%).  We have provided  an implementation of the  length function  – it should look very familiar from your previous work with binary trees.  What  is the work and span of length? (Hint:  It’s not O(1)).  Briefly explain why.


Task 2.2  (10%).  Implement the nth function.  Your implementation must use length, but NO other helper functions, and will have work in O(n)  and span in O((log n)2 ). Remember that  sequences are indexed beginning at  zero; your code should raise a Range exception if the argument index is invalid for the given sequence.

Note: There is a way to implement nth in O(n)  work and O(log n) span using a helper function  and  certain  assumptions  about  the  underlying  tree—you  should  not write  this implementation.  Your code for this  task  should not  be very long or complex; in the  next section, you will see an alternative optimization that  makes this simple implementation more efficient.


Task 2.3  (10%).   Implement  the tabulate function.   DO NOT  use length, nth, or any other helper functions.  Your implementation must have work in O(n)  and span in O(log n) (you may assume that  the  input  function  has O(1) work and span).   Remember  to ensure that  your trees are balanced!


Do not forget to test your implementation; you can test your functions together  by using

tabulate to create a simple sequence, then checking for correct values with length and nth.


Clearly,  the above implementation is not ideal; your answer to the first question  above should give you a clue as to why. There are several ways to improve our implementation; in the next task, you will do exactly that,  focusing on our implementation of length.



2.2     Sizable Shrubberies


We would prefer for our sequences to implement length with constant work and span.  One simple way to achieve this is to modify our underlying datatype. In the file sizeseq.sml we provide the following datatype:


datatype ’a sseq = Empty

| Leaf of ’a

| Node of ’a sseq * int * ’a sseq type ’a seq = ’a sseq


As before, for any type t a value of type t seq is a balanced binary tree with data stored at the leaves. This time, however we store an additional  value of type int in each node, with the following invariant:  For every Node(L,s,R) the value of s equals the size of the subtree rooted at this node (i.e. the number of leaves).  In other words, we have augmented  our tree to store the length  of the sequence at  the root node (for sequences of length  at  least two), and similarly the lengths of corresponding  subsequences at child nodes.  This leads to some clear improvements:


Task 2.4  (2%).  Implement length in sizeseq.sml; your implementation must  have O(1)

work and span.


Task 2.5  (1%).  Copy your implementation of nth from shrubseq.sml to sizeseq.sml; it should work with only minor modification.  As mentioned  in lecture,  your implementation should now have work and span in O(log n).


From the last two problems, you should see how an improvement in one part  of the code can lead to simple yet fast code in other areas.  However, this comes at a slight trade-off.


Task 2.6  (2%).  Implement  tabulate in sizeseq.sml; you should be able to re-use most of your  code from the  previous  section.   However, you must  now ensure  that  our second invariant (storing  the size in each node) is satisfied!


Task 2.7 (3%).  Do the work and span of tabulate change, and if so, what are the new O- bounds?  Briefly explain why, and describe the cost trade-off that  occurs between tabulate and length.


Remember to test  your implementations of length, nth, and tabulate as before.


These two implementations show how we can achieve O(1) time for length and a rea- sonable run-time  for some of our functions  using balanced  trees,  but  in other  cases we are restricted  by our choice of data  structure.  Using alternative implementations with  arrays or vectors (like the  Seq library  you will use for Barnes-Hut) we can actually  achieve O(1) work for nth and span for tabulate. In this class we will focus primarily on using sequences for functional programming,  but if you are interested  you can learn more about  this type of problem through  further  courses in data  structures and algorithms  such as 15-210.


3    Barnes-Hut


For the remainder  of this  assignment,  you will be implementing  the Barnes-Hut  algorithm for efficient n-body simulation,  an extension of the ideas you learned in lecture.



3.1     Preface


The following points explore the various libraries you will be using for this homework.  Please read  through  each section  to  ensure  you fully understand the  code infrastructure for the coming tasks.



3.1.1     The plane problem


For  n-body  simulations,  we need  a  representation of numbers  (or  scalars)  to  talk  about distance  between bodies in a 2D plane.  We have two options for numerical representation:


  1. Reals. Reals are fast to compute and work well for visualization, but alas they are only a floating point precision approximation to real numbers —not actual real numbers in the mathematical sense. In particular, addition and multiplication on values of type real are  not  always associative,  and  multiplication does not  always distribute over addition.  This means that  you can do the same sequence of operations  in two slightly different orders and get drastically  different results:



– 10E30 + (~10E30 + 1.0);

val it = 0.0 : real

– (10E30 + ~10E30) + 1.0;

val it = 1.0 : real


Hence, reals make it difficult to test  our code for correctness.


  1. Rationals. Rationals (or all numbers which we can represent  as a fraction  a





a, b ∈ Z) are not built  in to SML but  give us a precise representation for non-integer numeric  values.  Consequently,  rationals  make testing  more accurate  than  if we used reals.


Computation on rationals,  however, is slow because we have to do arbitrary precision integer  arithmetic.  Moreover,  we cannot  compute  Euclidean  distance  (i.e.   in a 2D plane) with rationals.  If x and y are rational numbers, it is not necessarily the case that

px2  + y2  is a rational  number.   We can, however, compute  the  Manhattan distance

between points2.




3.1.2     The plane solution


Rather  than  choose one or the  other,  we will instead  parameterize our Barnes-Hut  algo- rithm  by  giving it  an  implementation of numbers  inside  a package  called Plane.  Plane contains  a number  of useful functions  and  types,  including  Plane.scalar,  Plane.point, and Plane.vec for scalars, points, and vectors, respectively.

We have provided to you two implementations of Plane using reals and rationals  which

you can  find in lib/realplaneargs.sml and  lib/ratplaneargs.sml,  respectively.   The file lib/space.sig lists all of the functions common to both implementations of the plane. The  lib/makeplane.sml and  lib/makescalar.sml also have  some common functions  to the Plane signature  which you may find useful.



3.1.3     Scalar library


The type Scalar.scalar is equipped with the following functions:


  • Scalar.plus : Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar -> Scalar.scalar which com- putes the sum of two scalars.


  • Scalar.minus : Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar -> Scalar.scalar which com- putes the difference of two scalars.


  • Scalar.times : Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar -> Scalar.scalar which com- putes the product of two scalars.


  • Scalar.divide : Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar -> Scalar.scalar which com- putes the quotient of two scalars.


  • Scalar.compare : Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar -> order which computes the ordering between two scalars.


  • Scalar.fromRatio : IntInf.int * IntInf.int -> Scalar.scalar Scalar.fromRatio (x,y) evaluates to the value of type Scalar.scalar which repre- sents x .


  • Scalar.toString : Scalar.scalar -> string which computes a string  represen- tation  of a scalar.


There are other helper functions in the file implemented in terms of these; see lib/scalar.sig for a description.   By using only the above operations,  your code will work with either  im- plementation of the plane.



3.1.4     Point and vector libraries


In order to write our implementation of the Barnes-Hut algorithm, we need several operations on vectors and points in space, many of which we discussed in lecture.  The type Plane.point


is used to represent a point in space, and the type Plane.vec is used to represent vectors of velocity, acceleration,  etc.  Whatever  the definition of Scalar.scalar is, we define the type of points and vectors as in lecture:


type Plane.point = Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar type Plane.vec = Scalar.scalar * Scalar.scalar


This  uses Scalar.scalar for numbers.   Note  you may  see the  type  Plane.scalar while debugging – this is defined to be the same as Scalar.scalar. Here we give a brief description of some of the functions you may need on this assignment:


  • Plane.distance : Plane.point -> Plane.point -> Scalar.scalar

Plane.distance p1 p2 evaluates  to the distance  between the points p1 and p2.


  • Plane.midpoint : Plane.point -> Plane.point -> Plane.point

Plane.midpoint p1 p2 evaluates  to the midpoint of the points p1 and p2.


  • Plane.head : Plane.vec -> Plane.point

Plane.head v evaluates  to the point that  corresponds to the displacement of v from the origin.


  • Plane.sum : (’a -> Plane.vec) -> ’a Seq.seq -> Plane.vec

Plane.sum f s evaluates  to the  vector that  corresponds  to the  sum of the  sequence of vectors that  results  from mapping  f on s.  This corresponds  to the  mathematical


notion of a sum of vectors, sum f hs1, . . . , sn i = P f (si ).



3.1.5     Other libraries


There is a lot more starter code for this assignment than  for any previous assignment.  Only edit the files barnes hut.sml and tester.sml. When writing your solution, you should use functions specified in:


  • lib/bbox.sig


  • lib/space.sig


  • lib/scalar.sig


  • lib/mechanics.sig


  • ../../../src/sequence/sequencecore.sig


  • ../../../src/sequence/sequence.sig


3.1.6     Testing


You have two methods  for testing  your code:


  • If you want to check your code for correctness, you will use the rational implementation of the Plane (see Section 3.6.1).


  • If you want to visualize your n-body simulation, you will use the real implementation of the Plane (see Section 3.6.2).


3.2     Na¨ıve  simulation


Recall that  the pieces of information  we need about  a body in space are its mass, location, and velocity.  This is represented  by the type definition


type body = Plane.Scalar.scalar * Plane.point * Plane.vec


The type body is used to represent the different bodies in the n-body simulation.  Specifically, in an expression (m, p, v) of type body, m is the mass of the body, p is its position, and v is the vector representing  its velocity.

The naive implementation that  we gave in lecture has been rewritten  using planes and the following function:


accelerations : body Seq.seq -> Plane.vec Seq.seq


in naiveNBody.sml. This function transforms  a sequence of bodies into a sequence in which the element at position i represents  the acceleration  for the i-th body.

However, this implementation is accurate  on large inputs  but unacceptably  slow for an actual  simulation.  You will implement a more efficient approximation to find accelerations.



3.3     The Barnes-Hut algorithm


Barnes-Hut  groups bodies into quadrants and uses a threshold value θ to determine whether each individual  body is “far enough” away from a group of other  bodies.  If it is, it groups the other bodies into a big pseudobody and uses that  for the acceleration calculation instead. This results in a loss of accuracy, but a dramatic  speedup in terms of runtime—while the old algorithm  had work in O(n2),  this algorithm’s work is in O(n log n) if the threshold  value is well-chosen.

To calculate  the  effect of a pseudobody  on another  body,  it  is important to know the total  mass of all the  bodies represented  by the  pseudobody  and  also their  center  of mass or barycenter.    Therefore,  when we form a pseudobody,  we will compute  a tuple  (m, c) such that  m : Scalar.scalar is the total  mass of the bodies and c : Plane.point is the barycenter.   To  compute  the  barycenter, we compute  a  weighted  average  of the  vectors corresponding  to the displacement of each body’s position from the origin.  For example, if the positions are given by the set {pi | i ∈ I } and the corresponding masses are given by the set {mi | i ∈ I } then  we compute  the following vector:

R =        mi ri




i∈I mi


where ri is the vector corresponding to the displacement of position pi  from the origin. The barycenter  is then  the point that  results from displacing the origin point by R.

Given  the  total  mass and  barycenter, we approximate  the  acceleration  due  to  all the bodies in the group as the acceleration  due to a single body located at the barycenter  with mass equal to the total  mass.


3.3.1     Computing the barycenter


We will begin by writing the barycenter function to compute the total mass and barycenter of a sequence of pairs of masses and points.


Task 3.1 (10%). Write  the function


barycenter : (Scalar.scalar * Plane.point) Seq.seq

-> Scalar.scalar * Plane.point


that  computes the pair (m, c) where m is the total  mass of the bodies in the sequence (i.e., the sum of the first components  of the pairs)  and c is the barycenter.  You should use the provided scale point function to compute a weighted vector from a mass and position.  You should also use the Plane.sum function.



3.3.2     Grouping bodies


To group bodies, we will partition them into quadrants. Starting  at the center of the plane we are considering, we divide the field into quadrants, then  recursively group the bodies in each quadrant, stopping  when a region has either  zero or one body in it.  Here’s a sample division of a set of bodies3:



Note:  this  diagram  does not  precisely represent what  your BH tree looks like, because although  we use quadrants for dividing the bodies, we group the bodies within a quadrant by their bounding box and then  subdivide that  box.

This process yields a tree-structured division of space with the following datatype:


datatype bhtree = Empty

| Single of body

| Cell of (Scalar.scalar * Plane.point) * Scalar.scalar * (bhtree Seq.seq)


3 Credit:  http://arborjs.org/docs/barnes-hut


Empty represents a region with no bodies in it.  Single b represents a region with exactly the body b in it.  For Cell ((m, c), bd, sq), we have:


  • m is the total mass of the bodies contained  in the region.


  • c is the barycenter of the bodies contained  in the region.


  • bd is the diameter  of the  bounding  box of the  region.  A bounding  box for a set of bodies is a rectangular region which contains all the bodies in the set.  Some functions will reference the type BB.box which represents  the bounding  box, and you will find functions  related  to the  bounding  box in lib/bbox.sig. For our tree,  however, you will only store the diameter  of the bounding  box, not the box itself.


  • sq is the sequence  of the  four quadrants in the  region.   The  invariant  is that  this sequence is always of length  four and  that  the  four child bhtree’s are, in order,  the top-left, top-right,  bottom-left, and bottom-right quadrants of the region, respectively.


So the above example would have a tree that  looks like:



As a first step in constructing  this  tree,  we will write the quarters function  to split a bounding  box into four equally sized quadrants.


Task 3.2 (10%). Write  the function


quarters : BB.box -> BB.box Seq.seq

to compute  a sequence of four bounding  boxes that  correspond  to the  top-left,  top-right, bottom-left,   and  bottom-right  quadrants of the  argument  bounding  box,  in  that   order. You  may  find some of the  functions  in  lib/bbox.sig helpful.   In  particular, note  that the BB.vertices function computes the sequence of the top-left, top-right,  bottom-left,  and bottom-right corners of a bounding  box.


3.3.3     Growing the tree


Once we have the four quadrants, we need to partition the bodies between them.  To do this we will use the function


take and drop : BB.box -> body Seq.seq -> (body Seq.seq * body Seq.seq)


The  expression  take and drop bb s evaluates  to  a pair  of sequences in which all of the bodies in the first box are BB.inside of bb, and the bodies in the second sequence are not.

Observe that  we will need to be careful when using take and drop to partition the bodies in a bounding box we desire. You should break ties (i.e., points that  are on the line dividing two quadrants) in favor of the first of the two quadrants in the sequence.


We now have the  tools we need to compute  a bhtree from a sequence of points  and a bounding  box.


Task 3.3 (20%). Write  the function


compute tree : body Seq.seq -> bhtree


such  that  compute tree s evaluates  to  T, where  T is the  tree  decomposition  of s.   You may  assume  that  no two  bodies in s occupy the  same position  (i.e.,  have  equal position components).    Your  implementation does not  have  to  handle  arguments  that  violate  this condition.  You must use  Seq.map to compute the recursive calls  in  parallel!

Note 1:  you will need to compute  the  bounding  box for the  given bodies and store its diameter  inside Cells of your tree.  We have provided you a few helper functions which you may find useful for this task.  First, you have


position : body -> Plane.point


which returns  the position of a body.  Second, you have


BB.hull : Plane.point Seq.seq -> BB.box option


which given a sequence of points returns  a bounding box containing all points in the sequence

(BB.hull returns  NONE if the input  sequence is empty).  Lastly, you have


BB.diameter : BB.box -> Scalar.scalar


which given a bounding  box returns  the diameter  of the bounding  box.


Note 2:  If a large set of bodies is partitioned into  several subsets  and  the  barycenter of each subset  is known, the barycenter  of the whole set can be more efficiently computed as the  barycenter   of the  barycenters   of the  subsets.    In  this  instance,  the  barycenter   of the  bodies in a bounding  box can be computed  as the  barycenter  of the  four quadrants’ barycenters. You should use this observation to compute the barycenter  in the recursive case of compute tree by applying  the  barycenter function  you wrote  earlier  to  the  sequence of the  barycenters  of the  quadrants given by the  results  of the  recursive  calls.   You may find the  function  center of mass : bhtree -> Scalar.scalar * Plane.point helpful to project the relevant data  from the sequence of recursive results.


3.3.4     Computing acceleration


Now that   we can  calculate  the  tree  determined  by  a  group  of bodies,  we can  use  it  to efficiently compute  an approximation of the acceleration  of all the bodies at this particular timestep.  This brings us back to the threshold  value θ mentioned  above.



The reason Barnes-Hut  is more efficient than  the na¨ıve approach  to the n-body problem is that  it does not compute  the exact acceleration—instead, it uses θ to determine  exactly how precise to be. Whenever your algorithm reaches a region with more than  one body in it (that is, a Cell in the tree), it checks to see if d  ≤ θ (where d is the diameter  of the region’s bounding box and r is the distance from the body being checked to the region’s barycenter). If it is, then the region is treated  as one large body located at its barycenter  (which we have conveniently  already  calculated!).   Otherwise,  the  region gets decomposed into  quadrants and the respective accelerations from the bodies in each quadrant are computed  recursively, combined, and returned.


Task 3.4 (10%). Write  the function


too far : Plane.point -> Plane.point -> Scalar.scalar -> Scalar.scalar -> bool


such that  given a point p, a location c of a pseudobody, a diameter  bd for the pseudobody’s



bounding  box and a threshold  t, too far p c bd t evaluates  to true if d

≤ θ and false


otherwise.  Recall that  in this equation, d refers to the diameter of the pseudobody’s bounding box, r refers to the distance  between the point and the pseudobody,  and θ corresponds  to the threshold  argument t. You may find the function Plane.distance useful.



Task 3.5 (20%). Write  the function


bh acceleration : bhtree -> Scalar.scalar -> body -> vec


such that  bh acceleration T threshold b computes  the acceleration  on b from the tree T according to the algorithm  described above.  (Hint: The function accOnPoint in lib/mechanics.sig may be useful.)  You should use  Plane.sum to compute the re- cursive calls  in  parallel and add the resulting accelerations!


The provided function barnes hut uses your compute tree and bh acceleration func- tions to form the Barnes-Hut  tree for a sequence of bodies and then  use it to compute  the acceleration  on each body in the sequence.


3.4     Testing your code


Now that  you have written  all of the important code, you can actually  visualize an n-body simulation  with some of the infrastructure that  we have given you!

Barnes-Hut  is more difficult to test than  the previous homeworks because the data struc- tures  are more complex and examples are harder  to write out by hand.  We encourage you to test  your code using all of the  following techniques.   Although you  should take ad- vantage of  the visualizer and transcripts,  you   must also  write your own   tests for  Tasks  3.1-3.4 in  tester.sml.  You will also find some utilities  to  help  you test  in tester.sml.


  • Run the  visualizer!  The  existence of many  bugs will be pretty  easy (and  funny)  to spot.


  • You can use the functions provided  in tester.sml. This might be especially helpful for debugging particular functions.  In it you will find functions to test  for equality  of sequences, boxes, and much more.


  • For the final task 3.5, you should test your overall implementation by running  on the rational  plane and diffing the output against  ours, as described below. You do  not need to include hard-coded tests for  this one  task in your SML  file.  Running the  visualization  with  the  output from the  floating  point scalars  should  give you a rough idea of if your code is correct,  but  comparing  with our output on the rational scalars will be more precise.


Note that  the  Barnes-Hut  algorithm  that you implement is not  the  same as the  na¨ıve quadratic  algorithm!  The former is an approximation of the latter.   Therefore,  you should expect the visualization of the output of your code to be roughly the same as the visualization of the output of the na¨ıve code, but  the outputs  themselves will not agree.



3.5     Compiling your code


To load your code, at the REPL  issue the command


– CM.make “sources.cm”;



3.6     Generating transcripts


Once you have done the CM.make, you can use the functor Transcripts in transcripts.sml to generate  transcipts.  A transcript is a file in which each line represents  the position of a body at  a time  step.   Using Transcripts produces  many  example  transcripts, but  if you want to make your own simulations,  you can write your own functor to produce transcripts for your own universes.   In particular, the  visualizer is a lot more fun if you simulate  the solar system for a year, but  we left this  out because generating  the rational  version of the transcript takes too long.


3.6.1     Rational transcripts


You can  use  a rational plane transcript to test the correctness of your code.

To create rational plane transcripts, you can type the following commands into the REPL:


– CM.make “sources.cm”;

– RatTrans.go();


This will create a number of files that  all end in auto.txt, and may take a few minutes. You can safely delete these files at any time.

We have provided  you with a number  of rational  transcripts in the  folder tests. The transcripts that  you generate in this way should match the transcripts that  we have provided exactly.  To compare your transcripts with ours, use the UNIX utility  diff. For example,


diff rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt tests/rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt


If diff doesn’t make any output, as in


bovik@unix34 hw10 % diff rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt tests/rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt bovik@unix34 hw10 %


then the files are exactly the same and your code agrees with ours on that  case. If diff does produce output, as in


bovik@unix34 hw10 % diff rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt tests/rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt


< (0, 0),(0, 57909100000),(0, ~108208930000),(0, ~149600000000),(0,

227939100000),(0, 778547200000),(0, ~1433449370000),(0, 2876679082000),(0,


> (0, 0),(0, 57909100000),(0, ~108208930000),(0, ~149600000000),(0,

227939100000),(0, 778547200000),(0, ~1433449370000),(0, 2876679082000),(0,


bovik@unix34 hw10 %


then  your code does not agree with ours on that  case.4


We’ve provided  a script  comparetranscripts.sh that  will help you do this  as well.  If your code is correct, the output produced by running  comparetranscripts.sh should look like this:


bovik@unix34 hw10 % comparetranscripts.sh

checking rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt against tests/rat.onebody.1day.auto.txt checking rat.onebody.1yr.auto.txt against tests/rat.onebody.1yr.auto.txt


4 diff is a robust  and  useful UNIX utility  for comparing  text;  you can learn  more about  it starting at



checking rat.onebody.2weeks.auto.txt against tests/rat.onebody.2weeks.auto.txt checking rat.system.1day.auto.txt against tests/rat.system.1day.auto.txt checking rat.system.2day.auto.txt against tests/rat.system.2day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.1day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.1day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.2day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.2day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.3day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.3day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.4day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.4day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.5day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.5day.auto.txt checking rat.twobody.6day.auto.txt against tests/rat.twobody.6day.auto.txt bovik@unix34 hw10 %



3.6.2     Real transcripts


You can  use  a real plane transcript to run the visualizer.

To create real plane transcripts, you can type the following commands into the REPL:


– CM.make “sources.cm”;

– RealTrans.go();


As stated  above, calculations  with  reals are much faster,  and  the  transcipts should be created  almost instantly. All the transcripts end in auto.txt and you can safely delete any of these files.

Once you have produced a transcript file, you can visualize it by navigating  to




You can then  load a transcript file in one of two ways:  either  dragging  and  dropping  the transcript file into the dashed box, or using the file browser to select the file manually.  The visualizer will  only work with real transcripts!  Once you select a transcript, click “Go!” to run the visualizer.

In the visualization,  objects are displayed  as circles.  Note that  the scale of the display will be chosen automatically so that  all bodies are visible on-screen at all times.  If one body is very far away from the others at some step of the simulation,  this can result in objects at different positions appearing  very close or even being in distinguishable  in the visualization.

Note:  running  RealTrans.go() will generate  more transcripts of greater  complexity than  using the rational  transcripts. Try putting  real.system.1001day.auto.txt into the visualizer for interesting  results.