Lab #5 Solution



  • Introduction

This laboratory explores data structures called binary trees. You will use a binary tree to build a decoder for Morse code, and sort a set of numbers. Copy the files for this laboratory from the CS126 web site (download file

  • Trees


b c

d e f g

The diagram above shows a simple tree with a root node labelled A, internal nodes B and C, and leaf nodes D, E, F and G. We can say that A is the parent of B and C, that B and C are the children of A. Also, there are three levels in the tree. One thing you will notice about the tree is that all nodes have at most two children, we call these trees binary trees.

Recall lab 3 where we wrote some java code to implement linked lists. Each node of the list was an object and there was an encapsulating object for each list. We will use the same concept to implement trees. The key difference is that



Morse Code

Table 1: Morse Code















h ….

































instead of keeping references to successor elements in the list, we keep track of the left and right children of each node:


left right

b c









You may want to have a look at the BinaryTreeNode class from the source code that you downloaded, it implements a tree node which contains some data and has references to left and right children.

The rest of this lab session will focus on translating normal letters into and out of morse code. The specific character conversions are listed in the following table. Don’t worry, you needn’t be familiar with these, they are visible overleaf so you can test your source code.


The Morse and Esrom programs provide command line encoding tools. If you compile and run Morse it will translate inputted text into morse code. Esrom does a reverse translation, but takes its input from command line arguments. These classes use Coder and Decoder respectively to do the underlying work. Unfortunately Coder and Decoder are incomplete, during the next two mile-stones you shall finish their implementation them.

Exercise 1 Look at the Coder class, the encode method currently returns null for any character. The code array contains the Morse Code for each letter indexed sequentially, so that the index of the character ’a’ is 0, ’b’ is 1, etc. Alter the encode method so that it returns the correct morse code character for any given alphabetical character.

Binary trees will be used to translate from morse code strings to letters in Decoder. At each node in the tree, left shall correspond to ’.’ and right to ’-’. If you look at Decoder you will see that we have started the process of adding the Morse Code Strings by hard coding some of the tree in the constructor.

Exercise 2 Draw the tree after the constructor has been called on the Decoder class, you will notice that it follows the comment ’There must be a better way to do this’.

Milestone 1) You have now completed Milestone 1.

Exercise 3 Add another 5 or so characters to the tree in the decoder class, in the same manner as the three example characters are implemented.

Exercise 4 Read the decode method, you need to implement the two missing statements in order to finish this method. You can test this using the Esrom program.

Exercise 5 You can implement the decode method both iteratively and recur-sively. If you look at the decodeR() then you will see a recursive solution, but it is also missing two statements. Both of which are recursive calls to the method. You need to implement these statements and then modify the Esrom program in order to use the recursive method. NB: make sure that you call the publically accessible method from Esrom.

Milestone 2) You have now completed Milestone 2.

One of the most common uses of Binary Trees is to keep an efficiently sorted list. If you recall lab 4, we kept a list of strings in a sorted order, but this required a lot of string comparison and sorting everytime a string was added. At this point in time you might wish to examine the and classes.

Examine the add and addToSubTree methods and figure out what the tree which is being built looks like. Running the program BinSort will give you some idea of what is happening. Currently, traversal does what is known as an inorder traversal. In what order are the parent and its children being visited in an inorder traversal?

Exercise 6 What order would you need to visit the nodes to print out the num-bers in a descending sequence? Change the inOrder method to make this happen.

Exercise 7 For preorder traversal the order is: parent, left-child, right-child. Implement a preorder traversal by completing the preOrder method. Test it out by changing the call statement in traversal. What’s the result of running the BinSort program now?

Milestone 3) You have now completed Milestone 3.